John Eddy of Woodbridge






Click Here for 5 Generations of John Eddy of Woodbridge's genealogy




Summer 1998

Dear John of Woodbridge descendants:

In 1995 I sent a short document to you outlining some of the genealogical finds that I uncovered relating to John of Woodbridge, our direct ancestor. As I mentioned, at that time I was able to view the original handwritten will of John Eddy of Woodbridge. The will was located in the basement of the York County Court House in York, PA; It has now been removed to a new archives center in York, PA and is in the process of being preserved with the help of Mary Walters, the Archivist for the York County Archives Center. In 1996 I learned more about the Scots from whom John is probably descended and added that information in the 1996 edition of this document. I have begun to divide the communication into chapters in an attempt to render some organization to this document, and to encourage each of you to write a chapter concerning one, or more, of your favorite ancestors. As of this point only one of John of Woodbridge’s ancestors has added a chapter to the document!


The legacy of John of Woodbridge is that his descendants play a quiet, yet meaningful role in the development of the United States from before the revolution until the present time period. Pioneers, farmers (yeoman), public servants, and service professionals are all part of his eventual legacy. More on this later, as I would like to concentrate on understanding who was this Scotsman who we refer to as "John Eddy of Woodbridge." Where did he come from and why did he move to Woodbridge, NJ.

We need to begin with some religious history. In England, the restoration of Charles II of the house of Stuart imposed harsh penalties upon religious groups having strong moral convictions. James I (VI) placed severe restrictions on the expression of Presbyterianism. As a consequence, many Scots rebelled against the royal dictates of worshipping in the Church of England, a dictate which they refused to accept. As a result, "the jails were jammed with stubborn Scots who would not worship as the king decreed". The prisoners could not be converted; in despair, the Stuarts decreed their deportation and the Scots were glad to go. These Scots left for both Ulster in Northern Ireland and the colonies across the Atlantic. Did John of Woodbridge come from Scotland directly or from Ireland? Most likely he came directly from Scotland as will be explored below.

The following story helps introduce the story of the Scots migration to New Jersey. In 1685 a man by the name of George Scott of Pitlocry financed the emigration of two hundred of these Scots who were Presbyterians with the understanding that they work for him in America long enough to repay the five pounds in English money which he advanced for each ones passage. He chartered Captain Richard Hutton’s 350 ton ship The Henry and Francis and filled it with ‘poor men who had gone to jail for conscience sake’. In Sept. 1685 they sailed from Leith, Scotland and landed in Perth Amboy, East New Jersey. Perth Amboy was, at the time, a very suitable harbor for vessels sailing in from England. Sailing down the southern edge of Long Island leads you to the very safe, sandy harbor of Perth Amboy at the mouth of the Raritan River. As the years went by many other ships came bringing more Scots to their new home in New Jersey. "Largely as a result of the Stuart persecution in Scotland, these Presbyterians swelled the rolls of early Woodbridge settlers as did a group of English Calvinists of Puritan stock."

It is not impossible to imagine the scene when the Scots unloaded from their vessels in Perth Amboy. If they were to be indentured servants they would be picked up by their owners and brought to their new home or farm. If they were on their own, most likely they would start their long journey, on foot, to Woodbridge, points northwest in NJ, or points south in Monmouth County such as around the Freehold area. Wildes recounts the following story of the immigrants aboard the The Henry and Francis in 1685, which may shed light on how these immigrants reached Woodbridge:

"These emigrants had a very rough journey. Many of them died of fever and starvation. An attempt was made by Captain Hutton to take the passengers to Jamaica and sell them as servants. Fortunately a strong wind guided the ship to the mouth of the Raritan River. The Scots considered it a miracle. However, upon landing some of the well established citizens along the coast were not very hospitable. Therefore may of the emigrants crossed the Raritan River into Monmouth County. Others trudged to the northwest. "Those who were luckier than the rest got to Woodbridge, where the residents, Scott reported, were most kind. Woodbridge not only forwarded food and clothing to emigrants walking to the village, but also sent horses on which sufferers might ride."

Perhaps in 1703, on one such ship, John of Woodbridge, came. Why 1703? This is a guess but in the Presbyterian church cemetery in Woodbridge there is a marker placed by the ancestors of one of the early settlers from Scotland. The marker states that this individual came to Woodbridge on a vessel in 1703 along with many other Scots. John of Woodbridge could very well come at this time from Scotland in a manner outlined above, with his ship unloading similarly in the bay of Perth Amboy near the mouth of the Raritan River. It would not be entirely unreasonable to assume that John, at this point, was an indentured servant having to work off his fare. And there is one other piece of evidence about 1703.

It is important to note that the earliest record that has been found which relates to John of Woodbridge is dated Mar. 28, 1703 when he appears together with Thomas Pike as a witness to the will of Thomas Gauge or Gach of Woodbridge. {Thomas Gachs’ granddaughter, Mary, will ultimately marry John’s eldest son, James.} The earliest record of John purchasing land is in 1709. Could he possibly have been an indentured servant of the Gach’s? Or as extraordinary as it may seem, perhaps he was he even raised by them. It is likely that he could have been an indentured servant for the Gach’s. Thomas Gach or his son Thomas Gach are called Esq. in some of the early documents about Woodbridge. The name Eddy and Gach do appear together in old documents relating to Woodbridge, NJ.

It is reasonable to assume that John of Woodbridge was an indentured servant of some family in Woodbridge. He clearly resides in Woodbridge for at least 6 years prior to owning any land. And later in the story when we learn about his younger brothers who leave Scotland for Ireland and then immigrate to Pennsylvania, we would have a good reason for them not coming directly to Woodbridge because they would have to be indentured servants if they did. By moving to Ireland and then Pennsylvania, they would not have to go this route.

So, John of Woodbridge sails from Scotland to Perth Amboy, NJ and somehow gets connected with other settlers in Woodbridge near the meadows and farmland of the Raritan River. From where in Scotland he sails or from where he came is unclear at this point. However he settles in Woodbridge, becomes intimately acquainted with Thomas Gach, marries Elizabeth Edwards in 1706, raises numerous children and buys land in Woodbridge at least as early as 1709. Some of his land borders the upper land of the Presbyterian church dedicated for the minister of said church. He probably attends the upper Presbyterian congregation located in what is now Metuchen. His oldest children are buried in that cemetery rather than the one in Woodbridge, the so-called lower congregation. Life as a yeoman or farmer may have been traditional in the Woodbridge area in the early 1700’s. He does also own a fair amount of marsh or meadow; perhaps this is where clay was found to make pots etc.

To jump ahead somewhat, it is not unreasonable to claim that the Scots’ impact on the colonies was dramatic. By the time of the American Revolution the Scots were the largest group of immigrants in East Jersey and several of John’s sons serve in the Revolutionary War. The impact of these Presbyterian Scots should not be underestimated as the following passage asserts: "Since at the time of that war, the British officials in America constantly complained that the uprising against the English rule was a Presbyterian plot, it is obvious that the Scottish arrivals must have contributed heavily to the movement for independence." Certainly the British officials thought the impact of the Scots was not insignificant. (Wildes)


Sometime after 1736, he decides to move to the Marsh Creek Settlement in what is now called Gettysburg, PA.

Back to our story. From the late 1600’s, large number of Scotch-Irish immigrants came to the US, settling mostly in PA but establishing settlements in NJ, as well as Del and Maryland. Because of the association with the Edie’s in Adams County, PA, it has been speculated that John of Woodbridge was related to the Edie brothers who migrated there in about 1736 from Ireland. (We also know that John’s mother in law’s family name Allison is frequently found in the Gettysburg region.)

In 1736, the Penns let it be know that they were encouraging "pioneers" to move to large tracts of land on the Pennsylvania frontier. One would not have to be an indentured servant to own your own land. The Penns, being Quakers, made it clear that they would tolerate different religious beliefs which was quite welcoming to the new, Presbyterian immigrants. Because John Eddy of Woodbridge sold much of his land in 1734 in Woodbridge, it is entirely reasonable to assume he moved to Cumberland or the Marsh Creek settlement which is west of York, PA at this time. This area will become known as the Manor of Maske settlement and ultimately, Gettysburg. As discussed below we have certain evidence that he was present in this area by at least as early as 1741. His brothers, according to John William Edie’s genealogy, moved to this area and John of Woodbridge joined them in the Pioneer spirit.

Now we should review what the term Scotch-Irish signifies. The term Scotch-Irish is slightly "ambiguous because it refers to a people who are mostly from the lowlands of Scotland, are not Irish, nor a people of mixed ancestry," but who emigrate from Ulster, Northern Ireland. The term refers to Presbyterians from the Scottish lowlands, who settled, in the northern province of Ireland, Ulster, during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. These Scots also settled directly in the colonies such as NJ as did John of Woodbridge. (To be complete, it should be noted that Highlanders also settled in the Irish province of Ulster). As is well known, England attempted to build a large empire that included Scotland and Ireland. Their purpose was to control the ‘economy’ by controlling the social, religious, and political lives of its subjects. The Scots who left Scotland for Ireland, hoped to escape both from the poor conditions at home and from the severe religious restrictions imposed by James I (VI) on their Presbyterianism. By 1640 some fifty thousand Scots had arrived in Ulster, Ireland most of them Presbyterian. Shortly after this early migration to Ireland in about 1685, many began leaving Scotland directly for the colonies but the greater number of Scots still moved to Ireland. However, in the second decade of the 1700’s the Scotch-Irish begin their exodus from Ireland to the Colonies. After 1750 few Scotch-Irish remained in northern Ireland.

Immigrants were actively being solicited for as the English needed yeoman to work the land. As a fundamental attraction the colonies were also allowing religious freedom. In 1679, the proprietor of East New Jersey, Sir George Carteret died. In his will he directed that East Jersey be sold and it was bought by William Penn and 11 others. Penn, a Quaker, may have been instrumental in getting Scotland’s Presbyterians to move to NJ. It is generally thought that a fresh impetus to settle NJ began at this time and it came primarily from Scottish immigrants.

On a recent trip to the Adams County Historical Society, Gettysburg, PA I was given a photocopy of one of John’s youngest sons, Samuel Edie’s (he changes his spelling from Eddy to Edie) survey, dated 1767, of his property in the Manor of Maske region just northeast of Gettysburg. We have to assume (see will below) that he lived on the land that his father owned. If this is true then the area of his 205 acre "plantation" as John refers to it in his will, is readily identified. At the present time it is bordered by a very small cemetery on the north , along with a suburban housing development to the west. A buffalo farm sits where most of the farm was located! The small pond that is shown on the survey remains as it was back then. The plantation is also very near a Presbyterian cemetery called Black’s (due to a large number of the descendants of the Reverend Black’s family) Cemetery, where two Edies, a John and a David and their wives are buried. None of the Edie or Eddy stones remain, but this is a likely burial spot for John of Woodbridge, and possibly, his first wife! There are two other Presbyterian cemeteries located near the plantation site. They are southwest of the site of the plantation, and could also have been the site of their burial but of course this is speculation. Their farm or plantation is situated near the middle of the Gettysburg battlefield. One can’t help to wonder what became of the farm after the battle. How many Eddy’s lost their lives fighting in this epic tragedy? Was their home ruined?

In September 1750, just prior to his death, John of Woodbridge completed his last will and testament. The exact date of his death and burial site are unknown but his death has to occur between Oct. 1750 and March 1751. We can learn a lot about the end of his life from this will including the obvious fact that he had a second wife. It was dictated to a justice of the peace and witnessed by two of his sons, John, Jr. and William. His son Samuel, who inherits the plantation and becomes a Justice of the Peace in Adams County, is listed in the will.

As you may know, William Simonson Eddy, the genealogist of the John Eddy of Woodbridge, NJ line, tried to prove that we were descended from William Eddye Vicar of Cranbrook, an Anglican. Although William Simonson Eddy mentions that he (John of Woodbridge) might be from Scotland, unfortunately, he overlooked some key hints that would have made it clear that John Eddy of Woodbridge was indeed from Scotland, not England. On the other hand, John William Edie, the genealogist of the Edie family, believed early on that John was from Scotland. He has written that he was certain that John Eddy's original name was Edie and that he was one of three or four (possibly five) brothers from Scotland who came to the colonies in the early 1700's. To support this contention, ironically, William Simonson Eddy discovered that in 1706 John Eddy of Woodbridge had his name spelled Edie on his wedding certificate (1930 Edition of the Eddy Family in America -EFA- book.) In 1750 in his will, the spelling Eddy is used by the Justice of the Peace who wrote the will. As will be discussed further, his children who remain in NJ continue to use the Eddy spelling,3 but his children who move with him to Gettysburg, PA and stay there, revert back to the original Scottish spelling, Edie.

As mentioned it is thought that John of Woodbridge came from Scotland around the turn of the century to the Woodbridge area where he met his first wife, Elizabeth Edwards. According to William S. Eddy, his wife, Elizabeth Edwards, was from the Parish of Haddington which lies due east of Edinburgh. Unfortunately, he does not reference where he obtained this information. It must be pointed out that the name Edwards is an English name not Scottish. It is possible that Elizabeth Edwards was from Freehold, NJ.

James, John of Woodbridge’s oldest son, also married a women of Scottish ancestry - which would have been expected if his parents were Scottish. Incidentally, individuals from Scotland are noted to be quite a breed. John William Edie quotes George Washington as saying that if he had an entire army of men from Scotland, he would be able to end the revolution early. This may have been propaganda, but it is commonly known that the Scots were always willing to, and excellent at fighting. They were a group of individuals who were not afraid of too much (the Gordon and Cameron clans were known as excellent fighters). This could explain why many left for Ireland and then the "new world" to seek their fortune. Although this is not the time to explore this, it should be noted that the Scots were also considered a buffer between the German farmers in York and the native Indians beyond the Manor of Maske region.

As mentioned repeatedly, most Scots left both Ireland (and Scotland) for a "better" life economically and one free of religious persecution in the colonies in the early 1700's. In the 1730's many settled in the Marsh Creek area around what is now the Gettysburg, PA region. This area soon became known as the Manor of Maske region although the term "Marsh Creek" settlement is synonymous.4 John Eddy of Woodbridge moved to this region sometime after 1734 when he sold 67 acres of his land in Woodbridge, NJ. He brought with him his youngest children and almost certainly his first wife. Before moving, he gives land to his sons John, Gayon, and James in Woodbridge, NJ.

Pioneers in the Marsh Creek settlement recalled that the reason they had come to this area to settle was in large part in response to what they said was a governor's (the Penn’s) proclamation calling for the settlement of unimproved lands west of the Susquehanna River.5 And they would own their own land and clearly not have to be an indentured servant as mentioned above. So John of Woodbridge moves again to join his brothers and possibly due to the suggestion of the Penns.

A very interesting turn of events in 1741 gives further clue to the type of individuals that came from Scotland: In 1741 Thomas Penn sent a surveyor to survey the Manor of Maske region (which was drained by Marsh Creek and presently represented by the area around Gettysburg, PA). Manors were being created to establish some organization to the area soon to be known as the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. To be sure, surveying land to create a "Manor" would imply that taxation of some sort would be expected of the inhabitants of the Manor. The appearance of a surveyor convinced the settlers that they were being deceived in the same manner that they were deceived in Ireland prior to their move to the colonies. In other words that there was a "catch" to settling there. (John Eddy probably did not live in Ireland as did his brothers prior to settling in the area.)

The surveyor was unable to complete the survey because of resistance from the farmers. The surveyor issued a report that some settlers have "full resolution to kill or cripple me (or whoever else)... shall attempt to" survey the manor. Of the 29 men who were listed as obstructing the survey, three were Eddy's. Namely John Eddy of Woodbridge and two of his sons, John Jr and William.



Wm. McLelan John Eddy

Jos. Farris John Eddy jr.

Hugh McCain Edwd Hall

Matw Black Wm Eddy

Jam. McMichill James Wilson

Robt. McFarson James Agnew

Wm. Black John Keen

John Fletcher Jr. John Johnson

James Agnew, Cooper John Hamilton

Henry McDonath Hugh Vogan

John Alexander John McWharter (says he shall

Moses Jenkins move away soon)

Richd Hall Hugh Swainey

Richd Fossett Titus Darby

Adam Hall Thomes Hooswick declared

if ye Chain be spread again

he wou’d stop it and then

took ye Compass from ye

Surv. Gen.

The spelling of the original has been retained. PA, First Series, 1:635. See also Card 363,Counter 712,

Records of the Provincial Council, 1682-1776,Microfilm, Pennsylvania State Archives.

On this official document the Eddy spelling is used. From this document we learn that in 1741 John and at least two of his sons are farming the land in Marsh Creek. William is listed in the EFA 1930 edition as being a son of John of Woodbridge without any further information; as can be seen below, he is listed along with his brother John as being a witness to his father’s will. Did he have his own farm or did he simply work the land with his father? Most likely he had his own farm. We know that John, Jr. had owned land in Marsh Creek when he died as listed in his will. Since he did not get any land in the will from his father it can be assumed that both he and William had their own property.

By the time of John Eddy of Woodbridge's death in 1750 he owned a plantation of at least 200 acres just northwest of the present town of Gettysburg {,6}on a site near where the first shot of the Civil War at Gettysburg would eventually be fired(see above). The Manor of Maske region was indeed a place where many Scotch-Irish immigrants were settling. John Eddy of Woodbridge’s wife Elizabeth Edwards’ mother’s maiden name was Allison. There were numerous Allisons in both Woodbridge, NJ as well as the York (now Adams County) region according to William S. Eddy in the 1930 edition of EFA. Understanding these facts suggests further reasons why John Eddy moved from Woodbridge, NJ to central Pennsylvania to join his brothers and other Scots. The farm land is extraordinary in areas west of the Susquehanna River and it was an area that was supposedly, devoid of Indian conflicts. The Adams County Historical Society of Gettysburg, PA has written extensively about the Manor of Maske region and the early Scotch-Irish that settled the area.

John Eddy of Woodbridge's will shows what he left to his children, his second wife, and his children from his first marriage. The will is probated in York, York County, Pennsylvania. (Later, in 1801 the Marsh Creek area becomes part of Adam’s County, PA). In addition to the will there is a listing of his personal property.

Will of John Eddy of Woodbridge, NJ

In the name of God Amen this 18th Day of September 1750

I John Eddy being weak of Body but of perfect mind and memory

blessed be God for it do order this my last will and Testament

first of all I my Soul to the hands of God who give it

and my body to the dust to be buried in a Christian like and decent

mannor at the will of my Executors and as for my worldly possessions

I Divide it as following, all my Lawfull debts to be paid

first of all as for my Dear and well beloved wife Jenat Eddy alias

McColluagh I order her to have her Choice of any two cows she

thinks fit to take, and said two Cows to be kept from of all Charges

to her, together with her maintenance of the plantation during her widow-

hood, and the bound servant at her disposal, with the half of the

household furniture, as for my two youngest children Agnus

and Alexander Eddy I order each of them thirty pounds corranory

to be paid when come of age and my youngest son Alexander to be put

to which he thinks file to chigo as for my youngest Daughter

Agnus I order her the other half of my household furniture as for my

firsts wife children Elles Maryan James Joan Gayon Robert( crossed out on will)

John William and, Thomas Eddy I do order Each five Shillings

as for my Son Robert Eddy I order him a three year old horse

and my body cloas and as for my two sons Samuel

and David Eddy I order to them my plantation which I now

together with all the remainder of my worldly possesions

which remains undivided, I order my two sons Samuel and David

to build to thier mother a convinient house at their charges

if she demands it I order Walter Buchanan and my son

Samuel Eddy to be my Executors to do justice to my children

wife and children according to the true intent of this my

last will and testament written on this day and date above mentioned


Witness present


William Eddy his mark John Eddy his mark


Walter Buchanan Janet Eddy her mark

A map of the Manor of Maske region, published by the Adams County Historical Society, shows that his plantation lies a few miles northwest of the present town of Gettysburg, PA. As mentioned, and listed above, John Eddy and his sons John Eddy, Jr and William are listed as interfering with the original survey of the Manor of Maske region. Little is known about William however, we know that John Eddy, Jr eventually moves back to NJ to settle in Green Village, Morris County and marry into the Crowel family of NJ. Green Village is a farming community that reminds one of "lowlands".

Samuel Eddy (1732-1809) became known as Samuel Edie and "was a prominent 'countian' who held a number of important Adams' County offices" including Justice of the Peace

Filed with John’s will is an inventory of his farm equipment. The original documents are in fair to poor condition.




I have long been interested in the spelling changes to our name. My spelling, Eddey, dates back to at least James Eddey, eldest son of John of Woodbridge in his last will ant testament. Edie is a family belonging to the Gordon Clan in Scotland. The change in spelling from Edie to Eddy was made by scribes in East Jersey. Although there were many other spellings used the one that stuck appeared to be Eddy and Eddey. A spelling used only a short period of time by John of Woodbridge was Adie. The spelling Adie is probably a phonetic equivalent of how the original equivalent of Edie in Gaelic is pronounced. In Gaelic Edie was spelled Adhaimh (Gordon Clan).

The appearance of many spellings was not unusual in an era when few could read or write. But how did the extra 'e' get placed in the last name, Eddey? By whom did this spelling start? [Eddey is different than Eddye which is used by the English Eddy’s.] A question that can be asked is: Does understanding the spelling change contribute to understanding the genealogy? And also, does the spelling change suggest that there was an intended pronunciation of the name away from what was commonly used. In English, the spelling Edie would be pronounced "EEEdee". However the Scots would pronounce it much differently, hence the early spellings Adie. According to Ronald MacDonald Douglas, in his book, The Scots Book, (Chambers) Bracken Books; 1949-1995, the surname Edie in Gaelic is MacAdhaimh. (The term Mac means son of.) I suspect then that the new spelling Eddy or Eddey is a better spelling as it uses the softer pronunciation of Eddey. Does eddey rhyme with hey as in ‘hey you’?

I first thought that it was William Eddey, son of James (Grandson of John Eddy of Woodbridge), who began using the "Eddey" spelling (NY census records).8 William moved from Woodbridge, where he inherited some land from his father, James9 to Woodrow, Staten Island where he had a small (22 acre?) farm. William was one of the first descendents of John of Woodbridge, to marry outside the Scotish Clans. William's sons, including Andrew, continued this tradition of spelling the name with the extra ‘e’ but, oddly, only half of Andrew's children continued to use the "Eddey" spelling - the other half using the "Eddy" spelling. As mentioned before, none of his children remaining in the northeast used the Edie spelling.

However, the will of James Eddey, eldest son of John of Woodbridge and William’s father, used this spelling also. This spelling then must have its roots early in the move to the colonies.

In the St. Andrews Episcopal Church in Historic Rishmond town, Staten Island, there is a cemetery that surrounds the church. In this graveyard there are many gravestones with the names Poillon, DuBois, and Eddey. Of interest is that John Eddey, brother of Andrew who is the son of William, is buried there alongside his son. Both markers use the EDDEY spelling! This John has a son named Samuel who reverts back to the Eddy spelling as an adult and moves to Morristown NJ where he builds a huge mansion on Speedwell Avenue during the Gilded age. In another part of this cemetery, are three graves of Eddey’s that all use the spelling EDDEY. Andrew’s brother William and his wife Susannah are two of the stones. So clearly, in 1828 the name was spelled EDDEY not EDDY in our line for those who stayed in NJ or Staten Island. Also, William who married Catherine DuBois (father of Andrew) is listed in the 1790 census as spelling the name with the extra "e" as well.

A question that this raises is why??? Did James and William know about the confusion with the English line of Eddy's. Was the addition of the extra e help to be distinguished from them? Or was it the scribes addition and thus having little significance or were they interested in preserving a different type of pronunciation for the name that might accurately reflect the Scottish ancestry? Difficult to answer but I believe that the spelling changes reflected the pronunciation differences of the Scots language and the extra e made it phonetically better than Edie or Eddy. I also believe that there were some Eddy’s who believed they were descended from the English line of Eddy’s as is documented by the EFA.

It is interesting that William Simonson Eddy (and his father, Alfred - another son of Andrew), used the Eddy spelling and we know that he was intent on proving that the Massachusetts and NJ lines were related(see EFA supplement #45) Alfred's older brother, Carnes (my great, great grandfather), used the Eddey spelling. Those in the family who continued to use the Eddey spelling must have been very close as they all were buried very close together in the small cemetery located on the grounds of the Woodrow Methodist Church in Woodrow, SI. Family lore in my family has it that the extra ‘e’ was added to distinguish it from at least one of the English Eddys (Mary Baker Eddy).

In this cemetery of the Woodrow Methodist Church in Woodrow Staten Island are the graves of three of my direct descendents. William [son of James who was the eldest son of John of Woodbridge] , his son Andrew, and Andrew's son, Carnes Eddey. All three graves are next to each other, two have similar looking markers and as mentioned, use the same spelling. On the other hand, Alfred (son of Andrew and brother of Carnes) and his son William Simonson Eddy are buried in the Moravian Cemetery in Richmond, SI, and they spell their name Eddy.

{I should mention that Carnes Eddey helped build the iron clad ship the Monitor during the Civil War. He also had a 50 acre summer place in Randolph, NJ but he will eventually get a chapter.}


James’ will located in the NJ will section in Trenton clearly spells his name with the extra e. See footnote 8 for the text and the exact spellings.

James Eddy, son of John, inherited land from his father in Woodbridge and died there. He and his wife are buried in the old Presbyterian Church burial ground (near the train station) in Metuchen, NJ. He is thought to have been a farmer in his early years, but then became a town official (like his youngest brother Samuel did in the Marsh Creek settlement) later on. His wife was from Scotland, as was his mother in law. The Scottish connections are quite strong. They were members of the Upper Presbyterian church in Woodbridge. William Simonson Eddy states at one point that they were Quakers!

John William Edie writes in his genealogy (without references however) that James Eddy had frequent contact with the Edies living in the Marsh Creek settlement in PA. James is listed several times in the book "Woodbridge and Vicinity; The Story of a New Jersey Township", by Rev Joseph W. Dally. He is a moderator for the Freeholders’ meetings. He is listed as keeping the records when the clerk, T. Gage dies. The only other item known about James is that he was a private in the Revolutionary War. He is listed on the DAR burial plaque in the burial ground in Metuchen, NJ as being a private in the Middlesex County Militia.

We do not have much information about his wife, Mary Gach except that she has 11 children and is thought to be a Quaker by William Simonson Eddy. John of Woodbridge has 12 children, 10 from Elizabeth his first wife and two from Janet his second wife. Mary’s mothers maiden name is Bloodgood. There are many Bloodgoods buried where she is buried.


CHAPTER 5: MERIAM (Maryan) EDDY : Second oldest daughter of John of Woodbridge

Meriam Eddy, second daughter of John Eddy and Elizabeth Edwards of Woodbridge, New Jersey, was born in Woodbridge, New Jersey Jan. 29, 1708. She married Elias Stillwell, of English extraction, who was born in NJ in 1708 and died near Hancock, Maryland. Meriam survived her husband and died at the same place, Oct. 19, 1803, aged 95 years. Both are buried in the Tonoloway Baptist Cemetery, near Hancock, Maryland.

After marriage, Meriam moves with her husband to Maryland. They think that it is in Maryland but are surprised to find out that when the Mason Dixon Line is marked, they are north of the border. Meriam is not that far away from her father and her youngest brothers who make up some of the settlers of the Marsh Creek Area. It is very important to point out that even though they move from NJ, they are actually moving close to some of her family. A quick look at a Maryland map demonstrates the Marsh Creek Settlement being less than 100 miles from Hancock, Maryland. And the Marsh Creek settlement borders Frederick County. Also in the same settlement is her younger brother, Gavin! Her husband, Elias Stillwell, was one of the organizers of the Tonoloway Baptist Church which was built in 1752 (and was baptized there in 1753 by the Rev. Samuel Heaton.)

Both Meriam and her husband’s tombstones were standing in the church graveyard as of 1938. The epitaph on Meriam's headstone reads (read) as follows: 'My loving mate I did survive, and, true, my age was great, I lived the years of ninety-five, but here, behold my fate.' Her marker is classic for the time period.

FROM THE HEADY FAMILY NEWSLETTER: Elias Stillwell and his wife Meriam Eddy moved after their marriage in Woodbridge to what is now known as Frederick County, Maryland and from there to the farm near Hancock, Md., known as the 'Green Valley Farm'. It is assumed that he farms in Frederick County before they move 75 miles west to Hancock, Maryland. There is a story that he thinks he was buying a farm in Maryland, but when the Mason-Dixon line was established, his farm proved to be in Penn. Was this his first or second farm?

At one point he decides to leave Frederick County and travels on horse-back hunting water and a good farm. The field known as the 'Island Field' was the site of an Indian village. They were friendly and he bought them out with blankets and a few trinkets. They went away and gave him possession. There is a family legend that each year for many years, the Indians returned to this site to honor their dead, and that Elias Stillwell gave them a steer for the festivities.

He built a cabin, planted some corn, and that same year, 1746, returned to Frederick county and brought his family to their new home. Very soon after he built the house, still in use (1938). During the French and Indian War, he and his family had to flee back to Fort Frederick, which was built about that time to protect the settlers (1755-1757)

As an aside, on January 12th 1756, Catherine Stillwell, wife of Richard Stillwell, a nephew of said Elias Stillwell, was killed and scalped by the Indians, together with one child. Two of her other children were carried away, one eight and the other 3 years old. Her husband, Richard, escaped and got into Coombe Fort. Elias Stillwell lost 7 horses, a mare and two cows, taken by the Indians the same time.

After the French and Indian conflict is over, Elias Stillwell took out a patent for land from the United States (sic), said land being on Konolawa Creek and was called 'Diable de Boiteaux' which means Devil on Crutches. In 1762 Elias Stillwell patented 150 acres of land on Big Cove Creek, about 5 miles north of the Potomac River, for which he paid $110. In 1767 he patented 300 acres at the same place. Konolowa was later spelled Conoloway, and now, Tonoloway." The Potomac River runs just south of Hancock.

(This chapter was contributed by Ruth Hoggatt who obtained it from the Heady Family Newsletters.)



The following was taken from the Heady Family Newsletter. It is included in this document because it provides some information on Gavin, the third oldest son of John of Woodbridge.

"The stream now known as Tonoloway Creek, but called 'Konolawa' by the Indians living along its bank and 'The Conolloways' by the white settlers, follows a meandering course through the southern part of present Foulton (sic) county, Pennsylvania, crossing the boundary line into Maryland about three miles before it joins the Potomac at a point just below that river's northernmost bend. The Big and Little Tonoloway Settlements lay about five miles north of the Potomac along branches of Tonoloway Creek and immediately west of the large and small basins named, respectively, the Great (Big) Cove and Little Cove. These settlements had been founded by a few Scotch-Irish immigrants, at least one Welch family (that of Evan Shelby), and a band of Monmouth and Middlesex county, New Jersey families, which included those of Moses Graham, William Linn, Joseph Warford, Adam Stiger, John Melott, Benjamin Truas, Elias, Richard, Jeremiah Stillwell, Thomas Heady, GAVIN EDDY, Samuel Hedden, the Coombs, Belieus, Applegates and, no doubt, others. Whether the Monmouth and Middlesex county families came as a unit or over a period of several years, is not known, but they were all there by 1765 or earlier.

The precise date of the first settlement on the Tonoloways is difficult to establish. Some historians claim that settlers arrived as early as 1731, but others assert that 1741 was a more realistic date. The STILLWELL FAMILY HISTORY states that one source places Elias Stillwell, husband of Meriam Eddy and the older brother of Gavin Eddy, on the Tonoloways as early as 1735. Although that seems a bit early to us, other families can be proved to have been in the area by that time, so it may be true that he was there that early. The settlers purchased the land on which they settled from the Indians, and reportedly, had little trouble with them until 1750, in which year the Indians appealed to the proprietory government of Pennsylvania for the return of their lands, alledging they had been defrauded by a few trinkets and other items of little value, and drawing attention to the fact that settlement west of the Kittantinny mountains was a violation of the treaty in effect at that time. At length, the Pennsylvania authorities responded by sending out magistrates, accompanied by troops, to drive the settlers off their lands in the Great Cove. Most of the settlers pleaded guilty of settling on unpurchased lands, paid their fines and returned to their lands as soon as the magistrates left. Since the Little Cove and the Big and Little Tonoloways were on the borders of Maryland 'the magistrates declined going there, and departed for their homes.'

After Braddock's defeat at Pittsburg in 1755, the Indians began raiding throughout the frontiers. They revenged themselves on the Great Cove on the first of Nov 1755, and raided the Tonoloways on the 28th of January 1756. According to the PENNSYLVANIA GAZETTE issue of Feb. 12, 1756, 'they killed and scalped James Leaton, Catherine Stillwell and one of her children were killed and scalped, and two others carried off; one about eight, the other three years old. Her husband was at a neighbor's house when his wife was attacked and from thence got into Coom's fort'. Catherine Stillwell was the wife of Richard Stillwell. There was also a great loss of cattle, and horses and many houses were burned.

Apparently, about this time there was some attempt by Maryland, as well, to drive the settlers off the Tonoloways. A petition dated Sept. 29, 1755, was sent to Governor Morris from the settlers setting forth that 'these few lines to inform you we are very much imposed upon by ye Sherfe of frederick county in meryland in Comeing to take our Lands from us by a Maryland Right which we have had surveyed by Mr. William Lyon Surveyor under Mr John Armstrong surveyor for Cumberland County in pensylvania Last Spring....said Sherive peter butler has got surveyed by bringing a Captain and a parcel of souldars to Gard him while he was so doing....Threats were made by him that in two or three weeks he would come back and take all the land from the Forks of Tonolaways Crick down to ye mouth thereof, and all goods, chattels, horses, or anything he could find.'

The scanty Baptist church records are the best records we have of the members of the Tonoloway Settlement. Adjacent to the property then owned by ELIAS STILLWELL is the old Tonoloway Baptist Church which was attended by most of the settlers of British extraction and some others. Although the tombstones in its churchyard are its only extant records, they are often the means of connecting the pioneers buried there with their past. Unfortunately for us, there are no Heady stones, but many of the Stillwells and Truaxs still stand. Thus in their desire for freedom, privacy and an autogenous government, the settlers left few records of their early settlement along the Tonoloways. Once the Mason-Dixon line was established and the settlers were sure to which state they belonged, it became desirable for them to insure their claims to the land they had occupied for ten to thirty years. From the beginning 'with the

exception of a brief interval from 1761 to 1768, the system of obtaining title to land in Pennsylvania was by warrant. Under this system the land applied for must be paid in advance, which, even at the low price of land, many were not able to do. To meet this difficulty and to encourage rapid settlement and improvement, the proprietaries, in 1761, established a system of taking land on 'application' by

which land was sold on indefinite credit, the purchase money running at low rate of interest, and to be a lien on the land. This system remained in vogue until 1769' and under it Thomas Heady and most of the other settlers obtained title to the land they occupied. That accounts for the fact that the warreant and patent were not issued on Thomas Heady's 117 acres until it fell into the hands of William Bishop and Bishop, in 1836, paid $26.00 to Pennsylvania for the purchase and interest."




James’ will outlines who gets what land in Woodbridge. One of James' sons, William inherits land but moves to Woodrow, Staten Island sometime during or after the revolutionary war. Was he captured as a spy or simply detained by the British on Staten Island as is the lore that is passed down from family to family as recorded in the EF in A genealogy by William S. Eddy? Or did he move there because he fell in love with a French women from the Southwestern tip of Staten Island? The trip from Woodbridge, NJ to Tottenville, Staten Island is only a short ferry ride away. The total distance would be three or four miles as the crow flies. These questions can never be answered however, it is clear that his move to Staten Island does change his life. Firstly, he marries a French women from the large French Huguenot population on the Island at the time. Her name is Catherine Du Bois born Jan 1761 and dies at Woodrow, Staten Island in 1833. He marries a non Scottish women,{not an easy thing to do to marry outside the strong tradition of marrying within Scottish clans.} However, both the Scots and the Huguenots have a lot in common. He also becomes a Methodist. He does this probably due to the lack of suitable Presbyterian church on Staten Island and because during this time period the Presbyterian Church experiences some internal growth problems. It is clear that he does not join the Episcopal church although some of his children who dies young is buried in the Episcopalian Church yard in Old Town. The spelling of the name on that stone is actually EDDEY. This is consistent with the spelling of EDDEY on James Eddey’s will ( father of William).

By the way, William’s middle son, Andrew also marries into a French Huguenot family on Staten Island. He marries a Catherine Poillon, who was descended from a wealthy and intellectual French family. Her family also left Europe for the colonies, mostly New Rochelle, New York and Staten Island because of religious persecution. William and his wife and their children were Methodists who were somewhat freer in their beliefs than were the Presbyterians. It appears that quite a bond develops between the Calvinists from Scotland and those from France.

The Staten Island Historical Society has an old map of the island that has the location of William’s and Andrew’s and their spouses family farms on them. This map is huge and cannot be copied.

Andrew is an interesting and respected member of the SI community. See EFA book for more information. Later, Andrews eldest son Carnes marries a German women; was she descended from a Calvinist religious background also?

[Carnes youngest son, George Washington Eddey marries into the Ball family on Block Island, a family descended from the original settlers of the Island who were from England. George W. Eddey’s oldest son Erwin C. Eddey marries an Italian? women. They have two children, the youngest of whom was my father, Erwin C. Eddey, Jr. who marries Emma Bogart whose family is originally from the Netherlands. Gary Erwin Eddey the fourth child of Erwin and Emma marries Ilene Nevin whose parents are from Germany and Russia. Now what all this has to do with spelling changes, I do not know, but I thought you would be interested in the story. (It makes me think that we should start a society of individuals who can claim to be descended from individuals of at least 7 different nationalities.)]

We have explored the connection between Woodbridge and Marsh Creek. What is the connection between Woodbridge and Morristown, NJ? If one looks at old maps of the Jersey’s one finds that the three major roads out of Woodbridge go north, south, and one goes northwest directly to Morristown via Springfield. Green Village, parts of Mendham, Randolph and surrounding areas have fertile land for farming. There appears to be much travel between the two areas of NJ. Even the minister of the Presbyterian Church in Woodbridge moves there to lead the Mendham Presbyterian church. Eddy’s spend time farming the NJ area over a time span of about two hundred years. Alfred Eddy, William Simonson Eddy’s father, also farmed land in Mendham and Morris Township. The last Eddey who farmed the land in Center Grove, Randolph, NJ was the youngest brother of Carnes, George W. Eddy. George W. Eddy is listed in the History of Morris County as buying a farm from a D. Carrell in the Center Grove region of Randolph, NJ. After his wife and son die, he moves to South Carolina to live with his older brother Henry. And by the way, Carnes’ first cousin Samuel Eddy is a wealthy landowner real estate developer who lived in Morristown, NJ during the Gilded age. Samuel is buried with his family in the Morristown Cemetery and his huge, victorian house is still standing in Morristown NJ. Gary and Ilene Eddey make Morristown their home as of 1988.



As a whimsy, it is interesting to draw comparisons between the four sons of Andrew and Catherine AND the four sons (and Daughter) of Erwin and Emma. Each sibling cohort lived in the mid to late 19th or 20th century. The first sibling cohort lived in an era of change - the change from an agrarian society to a manufacturing economy or society. The second sibling cohort lived in an ear of change- the change from a manufacturing society to a service economy.

Of the 19th century brothers, two lived in NYC, Carnes and Alfred.

Of the 20th century brothers, two lived in NYC, Roy and Gary (and Beth).

Of the 19th century brothers, two lived in Morris County, Alfred and George W.

Of the 20th century brothers, two lived in Morris County, George C. and Gary.

Of the 19th century brothers, one made his home in the south, William Henry.

Of the 20th century brothers, one made his home in the south, Erwin (Wynn).

Of the 19th century brothers, one had a summer home, Carnes in Randolph, NJ.

Of the 20th century brothers, one had a summer home, Roy in Bellport, LI.

Of the 19th century brothers, one lived both in NYC and Morris Township, Alfred.

Of the 20th century brothers, one lived both in NYC and Morris Township, Gary.

Of the 19th century brothers, one was divorced, Alfred.

Of the 20th century brothers, one was divorced, Erwin.

Of the 19th century brothers, one had a Grandson who became a US congressman.

Of the ....

Other items of interest: Aunt Evelyn lived near the summer homes of two of the 19th century brothers, Carnes and George.

Two of the 19th Century brothers were farmers, Alfred and George and possibly Henry.

One of the 20th Century brothers lived in Freehold, the site of one of the earliest Scottish settlements in NJ and possibly where John of Woodbridge’s wife lived.


CHAPTER 10: George Washington Eddey, Youngest son of Carnes.

George Washington Eddey was born in Brooklyn? After some trouble deciding what he wanted to do he moves to Block Island (BI) where he begins his career with the US Weather Bureau known then as the Signal Service, a part of the US Army. He eventually marries in to the Ball family (marries two sisters Lillie and then Nellie after Lillie dies) of Block Island, has three children with Lillie on Block Island, moves away for a while and then returns to finish his career, retire, and then die there. He is buried in the BI Cemetery. He did live in Brooklyn, Green Bay, Wisconsin and Abeline, Texas before returning to BI to be the Weatherman for the Island in the 1912 -1920 range. He has weather related records in the National Archives in Washington DC. We have copies of his signature and he always spells his name "Geo. Eddey" in a very nice handwriting style.

I want to start his story, however, as a young teenager in Staten Island/Brooklyn. I will take some liberty in telling this story and let you know from the start that this may in fact not be entirely accurate (as if there are not any other inaccuracies in this document!) His older sister, Catherine has by this time married a Judge who works for the court system in NYC. He works in the area of commerce and is aware of the changes needed in an expanding weather service that the US Army Signal Service is about to embark on. Thus he heads off to Block Island to find his fate. Before Staten Island was built up, it had a strange resemblance to Block Island. Even now one can appreciate the similarities if one is on an undeveloped part of SI. For example, when one stands in the cemetery of the Woodrow Methodist Church where George Washington Eddey’s father, Carnes and his Grandfather Andrew is buried, you can sense a remarkable similarity to Block Island. That of course is true if there is no traffic on Woodrow Avenue and the noise from the neighborhoods is not present and there is a beautiful sky overhead with an ocean breeze blowing in. Anyway it is not too much of a stretch to think that the islands were similar and in a sense Geo. was heading to a very familiar place--at least in the summer when the winter winds and the fall nor’easters were not blowing in.



CHAPTER 11: Reflections on the national origins of one 20th Century Eddey clan

The children of Ilene and Gary Eddey are the descendants of at least seven different nationalities, over a two hundred and fifty year time span. The United States is one of only a few countries where this would be possible. These countries of origin include: Scotland, France, Germany, The Netherlands, England, Italy, Switzerland, and Russia. Certainly, this type of diversity mixes up the gene pool and I suppose should have some evolutionary effect. But even with the diversity, there are large amounts of things such as behaviors that must be passed down from generation to generation. How close are we in temperament, in behaviors, in intellectual curiosity, in competitiveness as our ancestors? I think that genealogy becomes fascinating only when one can try to paint the picture of what those characteristics were using only the briefest of hints available to us. Is there room for an organization made up of individuals descended from numerous backgrounds?


Submitted by Gary E. Eddey. Morristown, NJ. [To be continued]


So from Mac Adhaimh to Edie to Adie to Eddy and Eddey. (Clan Gordon)


1 I have been in contact with Mrs. Mary P. Walter, the York County Archivist, York, PA to have the will preserved (deacidified and strengthened). As of June 1998 she has agreed to help arrange for the preservation... If I pay for it which I have agreed to do.

2 The Edie Family. John William Edie and Associated Families. Pub privately for the author by Wallace Pischel Printing Co. Marceline, Missouri.3 Many of the descendents moved to Staten Island and Morris County, NJ (where I now live).4 The Manor of Maske: Its history and individual properties. (1992) Adams County Historical Society, Gettysburg, PA.

5 Manor of Maske: Its history and individual properties. (1992) pg. 9.6 Manor of Maske. Map of individual properties (1992) Adams County Historical Society.7 Personel Communication: Charles Glatfelter, Dir. Adams County Historical Society, Gettysburg, PA.8 New York State Census records for 1790.9 Eddy Family in America. Published by the Eddy Family Association, Eddyville, MA. Page 1083, (1930).3:43 PM